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ISSN : 1225-4517(Print)
ISSN : 2287-3503(Online)
Journal of Environmental Science International Vol.26 No.9 pp.1057-1072
DOI : https://doi.org/10.5322/JESI.2017.26.9.1057

Air Temperature Modification of an Urban Neighborhood Park in Summer - Hyowon Park, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do-

Sookuk Park, Sangman Jo, Cheolji Hyun, Hak-Yang Kong, Seunghyun Kim, Youngkyu Shin

Abstract

In order to investigate the effect of air temperature reduction on an urban neighborhood park, air temperature data from five inside locations (forest, pine tree, lawn, brick and pergola) depending on surface types and three outside locations (Suwon, Maetan and Kwonsun) depending on urban forms were collected during the summer 2016 and compared. The forest location had the lowest mean air temperature amongst all locations sampled, though the mean difference between this and the other four locations in the park was relatively small (0.2-0.5℃). In the daytime, the greatest mean difference between the forest location and the two locations exposed to direct beam solar radiation (brick and lawn) was 0.5-0.8℃ (Max. 1.6-2.1℃). In the nighttime, the mean difference between the forest location and the other four locations in the park was small, though differences between the forest location and locations with grass cover (pine tree and lawn) reached a maximum of 0.9-1.7℃. Comparing air temperature between sunny and shaded locations, the shaded locations showed a maximum of 1.5℃ lower temperature in the daytime and 0.7℃ higher in the nighttime. Comparing the air temperature of the forest location with those of the residential (Kwonsun) and apartment (Maetan) locations, the mean air temperature difference was 0.8-1.0℃, higher than those measured between the forest location and the other park locations. The temperatures measured in the forest location were mean 0.9-1.3℃ (Max. 2.0-3.9℃) lower in the daytime than for the residential and apartment locations and mean 0.4-1.0℃ (Max. 1.3-3.1℃) lower in the nighttime. During the hottest period of each month, the difference was greater than the mean monthly differences, with temperatures in the residential and apartment locations mean 1.0-1.6℃ higher than those measured in the forest location. The effect of air temperature reduction on sampling locations within the park and a relatively high thermalforest location must be most effective. In the nighttime, areas with a high sky view factor and surface types with high evapotranspiration potential (e.g. grass) showed the maximum air temperature reduction. In the urban areas outside the park, the low-rise building area, with a high sky view factor, showed high air temperature due to the effect of solar (shortwave) radiation during the daytime, while in the nighttime the area with high-rise buildings, and hence a low sky view factor, showed high air temperature due to the effect of terrestrial (longwave) radiation emitted by surrounding high-rise building surfaces. The effect of air temperature reduction on the park with a high thermal environment in the city was clearly evident in the daytime, and the shading effect of trees in the forest location must be most effective. In the nighttime, areas with high sky view factor and surface types (e.g., grass) with evapotranspiration effect showed maximum air temperature reduction. In the urban areas outside the park, the high sky view factor area (low-rise building area) showed high air temperature due to the effect of solar (shortwave) radiation during the daytime, but in the nighttime the low sky view factor area (high-rise building area) showed high air temperature due to the effect of terrestrial (longwave) radiation emitted surrounding high-rise building surfaces.

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